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Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Vendredi 01 Décembre 2017, 22:25
par OG

Pour celles et ceux qui ont un peu de temps libre, c'est reparti !
Tout aussi digeste que du chocolat, cela permet de faire du Python tous les jours.
Pour le 1er jour, rien de difficile.

J'ai oublié de mettre le lien !

--- Day 1: Inverse Captcha ---

The night before Christmas, one of Santa's Elves calls you in a panic. "The printer's broken! We can't print the Naughty or Nice List!" By the time you make it to sub-basement 17, there are only a few minutes until midnight. "We have a big problem," she says; "there must be almost fifty bugs in this system, but nothing else can print The List. Stand in this square, quick! There's no time to explain; if you can convince them to pay you in stars, you'll be able to--" She pulls a lever and the world goes blurry.

When your eyes can focus again, everything seems a lot more pixelated than before. She must have sent you inside the computer! You check the system clock: 25 milliseconds until midnight. With that much time, you should be able to collect all fifty stars by December 25th.

Collect stars by solving puzzles. Two puzzles will be made available on each day millisecond in the advent calendar; the second puzzle is unlocked when you complete the first. Each puzzle grants one star. Good luck!

You're standing in a room with "digitization quarantine" written in LEDs along one wall. The only door is locked, but it includes a small interface. "Restricted Area - Strictly No Digitized Users Allowed."

It goes on to explain that you may only leave by solving a captcha to prove you're not a human. Apparently, you only get one millisecond to solve the captcha: too fast for a normal human, but it feels like hours to you.

The captcha requires you to review a sequence of digits (your puzzle input) and find the sum of all digits that match the next digit in the list. The list is circular, so the digit after the last digit is the first digit in the list.

For example:

1122 produces a sum of 3 (1 + 2) because the first digit (1) matches the second digit and the third digit (2) matches the fourth digit.
1111 produces 4 because each digit (all 1) matches the next.
1234 produces 0 because no digit matches the next.
91212129 produces 9 because the only digit that matches the next one is the last digit, 9.

What is the solution to your captcha?

Your puzzle answer was ????
--- Part Two ---

You notice a progress bar that jumps to 50% completion. Apparently, the door isn't yet satisfied, but it did emit a star as encouragement. The instructions change:

Now, instead of considering the next digit, it wants you to consider the digit halfway around the circular list. That is, if your list contains 10 items, only include a digit in your sum if the digit 10/2 = 5 steps forward matches it. Fortunately, your list has an even number of elements.

For example:

1212 produces 6: the list contains 4 items, and all four digits match the digit 2 items ahead.
1221 produces 0, because every comparison is between a 1 and a 2.
123425 produces 4, because both 2s match each other, but no other digit has a match.
123123 produces 12.
12131415 produces 4.

What is the solution to your new captcha?

Your puzzle answer was ?????


Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Lundi 04 Décembre 2017, 23:07
par OG
Pour le jour 3 (au moins la 1ère partie de l'énigme) pas besoin de Python ou autre langage.
Il faut juste savoir compter, faire une division euclidienne... (avec une machine à calculer tout de même)
--- Day 3: Spiral Memory ---

You come across an experimental new kind of memory stored on an infinite two-dimensional grid.

Each square on the grid is allocated in a spiral pattern starting at a location marked 1 and then counting up while spiraling outward. For example, the first few squares are allocated like this:

17 16 15 14 13
18 5 4 3 12
19 6 1 2 11
20 7 8 9 10
21 22 23---> ...

While this is very space-efficient (no squares are skipped), requested data must be carried back to square 1 (the location of the only access port for this memory system) by programs that can only move up, down, left, or right. They always take the shortest path: the Manhattan Distance between the location of the data and square 1.

For example:

Data from square 1 is carried 0 steps, since it's at the access port.
Data from square 12 is carried 3 steps, such as: down, left, left.
Data from square 23 is carried only 2 steps: up twice.
Data from square 1024 must be carried 31 steps.

How many steps are required to carry the data from the square identified in your puzzle input all the way to the access port?

Your puzzle input was 265149.

Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Jeudi 07 Décembre 2017, 13:35
par OG
Jusqu'à présent, mis à part le jour 3, il n'y avait pas beaucoup à réfléchir, c'était surtout manipuler des chaînes de caractères, les transformer, calculer des modulos,
éventuellement utiliser un dictionnaire. Pour le jour 7, c'est peut-être plus amusant, une structure d'arbre mais donnée de façon non structurée,
il faut trouver le "sommet".

--- Day 7: Recursive Circus ---

Wandering further through the circuits of the computer, you come upon a tower of programs that have gotten themselves into a bit of trouble. A recursive algorithm has gotten out of hand, and now they're balanced precariously in a large tower.

One program at the bottom supports the entire tower. It's holding a large disc, and on the disc are balanced several more sub-towers. At the bottom of these sub-towers, standing on the bottom disc, are other programs, each holding their own disc, and so on. At the very tops of these sub-sub-sub-...-towers, many programs stand simply keeping the disc below them balanced but with no disc of their own.

You offer to help, but first you need to understand the structure of these towers. You ask each program to yell out their name, their weight, and (if they're holding a disc) the names of the programs immediately above them balancing on that disc. You write this information down (your puzzle input). Unfortunately, in their panic, they don't do this in an orderly fashion; by the time you're done, you're not sure which program gave which information.

For example, if your list is the following:

pbga (66)
xhth (57)
ebii (61)
havc (66)
ktlj (57)
fwft (72) -> ktlj, cntj, xhth
qoyq (66)
padx (45) -> pbga, havc, qoyq
tknk (41) -> ugml, padx, fwft
jptl (61)
ugml (68) -> gyxo, ebii, jptl
gyxo (61)
cntj (57)

...then you would be able to recreate the structure of the towers that looks like this:
Code: Tout sélectionner
         ugml - ebii
       /      \     
      |         jptl
      |         pbga
     /        /
tknk --- padx - havc
     \        \
      |         qoyq
      |         ktlj
       \      /     
         fwft - cntj

In this example, tknk is at the bottom of the tower (the bottom program), and is holding up ugml, padx, and fwft. Those programs are, in turn, holding up other programs; in this example, none of those programs are holding up any other programs, and are all the tops of their own towers. (The actual tower balancing in front of you is much larger.)

Before you're ready to help them, you need to make sure your information is correct. What is the name of the bottom program?

Le fichier contient 1292 lignes...
La seconde partie de l'énigme demande d'utiliser les nombres qui sont après chaque 'nom de sommet', définissent un poids.

Les plus rapides ont mis un peu moins de 10 minutes pour répondre aux deux parties (pour la seule 1èr partie, 2 minutes), ce qui est beaucoup plus que les jours 1,2,4, 5 et 6.


Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Mercredi 13 Décembre 2017, 21:46
par OG

Je suis à peu près certain qu'avec des expressions régulières (voire même avec Emacs) il est possible
de suivre les règles d'élimination, compter les parenthèses, les groupes.
Jour 9 :
--- Day 9: Stream Processing ---

A large stream blocks your path. According to the locals, it's not safe to cross the stream at the moment because it's full of garbage. You look down at the stream; rather than water, you discover that it's a stream of characters.

You sit for a while and record part of the stream (your puzzle input). The characters represent groups - sequences that begin with { and end with }. Within a group, there are zero or more other things, separated by commas: either another group or garbage. Since groups can contain other groups, a } only closes the most-recently-opened unclosed group - that is, they are nestable. Your puzzle input represents a single, large group which itself contains many smaller ones.

Sometimes, instead of a group, you will find garbage. Garbage begins with < and ends with >. Between those angle brackets, almost any character can appear, including { and }. Within garbage, < has no special meaning.

In a futile attempt to clean up the garbage, some program has canceled some of the characters within it using !: inside garbage, any character that comes after ! should be ignored, including <, >, and even another !.

You don't see any characters that deviate from these rules. Outside garbage, you only find well-formed groups, and garbage always terminates according to the rules above.

Here are some self-contained pieces of garbage:
Code: Tout sélectionner
    <>, empty garbage.
    <random characters>, garbage containing random characters.
    <<<<>, because the extra < are ignored.
    <{!>}>, because the first > is canceled.
    <!!>, because the second ! is canceled, allowing the > to terminate the garbage.
    <!!!>>, because the second ! and the first > are canceled.
    <{o"i!a,<{i<a>, which ends at the first >.

Here are some examples of whole streams and the number of groups they contain:

Code: Tout sélectionner
    {}, 1 group.
    {{{}}}, 3 groups.
    {{},{}}, also 3 groups.
    {{{},{},{{}}}}, 6 groups.
    {<{},{},{{}}>}, 1 group (which itself contains garbage).
    {<a>,<a>,<a>,<a>}, 1 group.
    {{<a>},{<a>},{<a>},{<a>}}, 5 groups.
    {{<!>},{<!>},{<!>},{<a>}}, 2 groups (since all but the last > are canceled).

Your goal is to find the total score for all groups in your input. Each group is assigned a score which is one more than the score of the group that immediately contains it. (The outermost group gets a score of 1.)

Code: Tout sélectionner
   {}, score of 1.
    {{{}}}, score of 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.
    {{},{}}, score of 1 + 2 + 2 = 5.
    {{{},{},{{}}}}, score of 1 + 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 4 = 16.
    {<a>,<a>,<a>,<a>}, score of 1.
    {{<ab>},{<ab>},{<ab>},{<ab>}}, score of 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 9.
    {{<!!>},{<!!>},{<!!>},{<!!>}}, score of 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 9.
    {{<a!>},{<a!>},{<a!>},{<ab>}}, score of 1 + 2 = 3.

What is the total score for all groups in your input?


Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Mercredi 13 Décembre 2017, 21:50
par OG
Jour 11, il faut se déplacer dans un pavage hexagonal (

--- Day 11: Hex Ed ---

Crossing the bridge, you've barely reached the other side of the stream when a program comes up to you, clearly in distress. "It's my child process," she says, "he's gotten lost in an infinite grid!"

Fortunately for her, you have plenty of experience with infinite grids.

Unfortunately for you, it's a hex grid.

The hexagons ("hexes") in this grid are aligned such that adjacent hexes can be found to the north, northeast, southeast, south, southwest, and northwest:
Code: Tout sélectionner
  \ n  /
nw +--+ ne
  /    \
-+      +-
  \    /
sw +--+ se
  / s  \

You have the path the child process took. Starting where he started, you need to determine the fewest number of steps required to reach him. (A "step" means to move from the hex you are in to any adjacent hex.)

For example:
Code: Tout sélectionner
    ne,ne,ne is 3 steps away.
    ne,ne,sw,sw is 0 steps away (back where you started).
    ne,ne,s,s is 2 steps away (se,se).
    se,sw,se,sw,sw is 3 steps away (s,s,sw).

Your puzzle answer was ???


Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Lundi 18 Décembre 2017, 22:20
par OG
Jour 14,
dans la 2nd partie du puzzle, il faut déterminer le nombre de régions. Grosso modo dans une matrice remplie de 0 et 1, deux coefficients non nuls (donc égaux à 1)
sont voisins s'ils sont l'un à côté de l'autre horizontalement ou verticalement (donc pas diagonalement). Il faut déterminer le nombre de régions.

--- Day 14: Disk Defragmentation ---

Suddenly, a scheduled job activates the system's disk defragmenter. Were the situation different, you might sit and watch it for a while, but today, you just don't have that kind of time. It's soaking up valuable system resources that are needed elsewhere, and so the only option is to help it finish its task as soon as possible.

The disk in question consists of a 128x128 grid; each square of the grid is either free or used. On this disk, the state of the grid is tracked by the bits in a sequence of knot hashes.

A total of 128 knot hashes are calculated, each corresponding to a single row in the grid; each hash contains 128 bits which correspond to individual grid squares. Each bit of a hash indicates whether that square is free (0) or used (1).

The hash inputs are a key string (your puzzle input), a dash, and a number from 0 to 127 corresponding to the row. For example, if your key string were flqrgnkx, then the first row would be given by the bits of the knot hash of flqrgnkx-0, the second row from the bits of the knot hash of flqrgnkx-1, and so on until the last row, flqrgnkx-127.

The output of a knot hash is traditionally represented by 32 hexadecimal digits; each of these digits correspond to 4 bits, for a total of 4 * 32 = 128 bits. To convert to bits, turn each hexadecimal digit to its equivalent binary value, high-bit first: 0 becomes 0000, 1 becomes 0001, e becomes 1110, f becomes 1111, and so on; a hash that begins with a0c2017... in hexadecimal would begin with 10100000110000100000000101110000... in binary.

Continuing this process, the first 8 rows and columns for key flqrgnkx appear as follows, using # to denote used squares, and . to denote free ones:
Code: Tout sélectionner
|      |   
V      V   

In this example, 8108 squares are used across the entire 128x128 grid.

Given your actual key string, how many squares are used?

Your puzzle answer was ????.
--- Part Two ---

Now, all the defragmenter needs to know is the number of regions. A region is a group of used squares that are all adjacent, not including diagonals. Every used square is in exactly one region: lone used squares form their own isolated regions, while several adjacent squares all count as a single region.

In the example above, the following nine regions are visible, each marked with a distinct digit:
Code: Tout sélectionner
|      |   
V      V   

Of particular interest is the region marked 8; while it does not appear contiguous in this small view, all of the squares marked 8 are connected when considering the whole 128x128 grid. In total, in this example, 1242 regions are present.

How many regions are present given your key string?

Your puzzle answer was ???.

Both parts of this puzzle are complete! They provide two gold stars: **

At this point, you should return to your advent calendar and try another puzzle.

Your puzzle input was hwlqcszp.

Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Lundi 18 Décembre 2017, 22:33
par OG
Jours 16 et 17
la force brute est à éviter (et n'aboutira pas en temps court).

Dans 16, on agit sur "abcdefghijklmnop" par une transformation qui n'est pas tout à fait une permutation.
Il faut donner le résultat (partie 2) après 1000000000 (la même) transformation !
Avec mise en cache (ou memoization) ou en repérant simplement la période, tout va bien

--- Day 16: Permutation Promenade ---

You come upon a very unusual sight; a group of programs here appear to be dancing.

There are sixteen programs in total, named a through p. They start by standing in a line: a stands in position 0, b stands in position 1, and so on until p, which stands in position 15.

The programs' dance consists of a sequence of dance moves:

Spin, written sX, makes X programs move from the end to the front, but maintain their order otherwise. (For example, s3 on abcde produces cdeab).
Exchange, written xA/B, makes the programs at positions A and B swap places.
Partner, written pA/B, makes the programs named A and B swap places.

For example, with only five programs standing in a line (abcde), they could do the following dance:

Code: Tout sélectionner
    s1, a spin of size 1: eabcd.
    x3/4, swapping the last two programs: eabdc.
    pe/b, swapping programs e and b: baedc.

After finishing their dance, the programs end up in order baedc.

You watch the dance for a while and record their dance moves (your puzzle input). In what order are the programs standing after their dance?

Your puzzle answer was .
--- Part Two ---

Now that you're starting to get a feel for the dance moves, you turn your attention to the dance as a whole.

Keeping the positions they ended up in from their previous dance, the programs perform it again and again: including the first dance, a total of one billion (1000000000) times.

In the example above, their second dance would begin with the order baedc, and use the same dance moves:

Code: Tout sélectionner
    s1, a spin of size 1: cbaed.
    x3/4, swapping the last two programs: cbade.
    pe/b, swapping programs e and b: ceadb.

In what order are the programs standing after their billion dances?

Your puzzle answer was ??.

Both parts of this puzzle are complete! They provide two gold stars: **

At this point, you should return to your advent calendar and try another puzzle.

If you still want to see it, you can get your puzzle input.

Dans 17, partie 2, on demande un élément particulier d'une liste au bout de 50000000 itérations. Là encore mieux vaut réfléchir avant de se lancer...

--- Day 17: Spinlock ---

Suddenly, whirling in the distance, you notice what looks like a massive, pixelated hurricane: a deadly spinlock. This spinlock isn't just consuming computing power, but memory, too; vast, digital mountains are being ripped from the ground and consumed by the vortex.

If you don't move quickly, fixing that printer will be the least of your problems.

This spinlock's algorithm is simple but efficient, quickly consuming everything in its path. It starts with a circular buffer containing only the value 0, which it marks as the current position. It then steps forward through the circular buffer some number of steps (your puzzle input) before inserting the first new value, 1, after the value it stopped on. The inserted value becomes the current position. Then, it steps forward from there the same number of steps, and wherever it stops, inserts after it the second new value, 2, and uses that as the new current position again.

It repeats this process of stepping forward, inserting a new value, and using the location of the inserted value as the new current position a total of 2017 times, inserting 2017 as its final operation, and ending with a total of 2018 values (including 0) in the circular buffer.

For example, if the spinlock were to step 3 times per insert, the circular buffer would begin to evolve like this (using parentheses to mark the current position after each iteration of the algorithm):
Code: Tout sélectionner
    (0), the initial state before any insertions.
    0 (1): the spinlock steps forward three times (0, 0, 0), and then inserts the first value, 1, after it. 1 becomes the current position.
    0 (2) 1: the spinlock steps forward three times (0, 1, 0), and then inserts the second value, 2, after it. 2 becomes the current position.
    0  2 (3) 1: the spinlock steps forward three times (1, 0, 2), and then inserts the third value, 3, after it. 3 becomes the current position.

And so on:

Code: Tout sélectionner
    0  2 (4) 3  1
    0 (5) 2  4  3  1
    0  5  2  4  3 (6) 1
    0  5 (7) 2  4  3  6  1
    0  5  7  2  4  3 (8) 6  1
    0 (9) 5  7  2  4  3  8  6  1

Eventually, after 2017 insertions, the section of the circular buffer near the last insertion looks like this:
Code: Tout sélectionner
1512  1134  151 (2017) 638  1513  851

Perhaps, if you can identify the value that will ultimately be after the last value written (2017), you can short-circuit the spinlock. In this example, that would be 638.

What is the value after 2017 in your completed circular buffer?

Your puzzle answer was ???
--- Part Two ---

The spinlock does not short-circuit. Instead, it gets more angry. At least, you assume that's what happened; it's spinning significantly faster than it was a moment ago.

You have good news and bad news.

The good news is that you have improved calculations for how to stop the spinlock. They indicate that you actually need to identify the value after 0 in the current state of the circular buffer.

The bad news is that while you were determining this, the spinlock has just finished inserting its fifty millionth value (50000000).

What is the value after 0 the moment 50000000 is inserted?

Your puzzle answer was ??.
Both parts of this puzzle are complete! They provide two gold stars: **

At this point, you should return to your advent calendar and try another puzzle.

Your puzzle input was 328.

Re: Calendrier de l'Avent 2017

MessagePosté: Dimanche 24 Décembre 2017, 12:25
par OG

Le gigot de 7 heures étant dans le four, j'ai un peu de temps.
Le jour 23 commence avec un banal exercice, une liste d'instructions, des listes de nombres,
il faut savoir gérer les chaînes de caractères, les tableaux...

--- Day 23: Coprocessor Conflagration ---

You decide to head directly to the CPU and fix the printer from there. As you get close, you find an experimental coprocessor doing so much work that the local programs are afraid it will halt and catch fire. This would cause serious issues for the rest of the computer, so you head in and see what you can do.

The code it's running seems to be a variant of the kind you saw recently on that tablet. The general functionality seems very similar, but some of the instructions are different:
Code: Tout sélectionner
    set X Y sets register X to the value of Y.
    sub X Y decreases register X by the value of Y.
    mul X Y sets register X to the result of multiplying the value contained in register X by the value of Y.
    jnz X Y jumps with an offset of the value of Y, but only if the value of X is not zero. (An offset of 2 skips the next instruction, an offset of -1 jumps to the previous instruction, and so on.)

Only the instructions listed above are used. The eight registers here, named a through h, all start at 0.

The coprocessor is currently set to some kind of debug mode, which allows for testing, but prevents it from doing any meaningful work.

If you run the program (your puzzle input), how many times is the mul instruction invoked?

Your puzzle answer was ???.

Par conte la 2nde étape est plus amusante, car sans un minimum d'arithmétique (je ne connais pas les programmes de lycée
mais je crois qu'avec une spé Math en TS cela suffit) il est impossible de s'en sortir (ou alors il faut attendre très très longtemps) ....

--- Part Two ---

Now, it's time to fix the problem.

The debug mode switch is wired directly to register a. You flip the switch, which makes register a now start at 1 when the program is executed.

Immediately, the coprocessor begins to overheat. Whoever wrote this program obviously didn't choose a very efficient implementation. You'll need to optimize the program if it has any hope of completing before Santa needs that printer working.

The coprocessor's ultimate goal is to determine the final value left in register h once the program completes. Technically, if it had that... it wouldn't even need to run the program.

After setting register a to 1, if the program were to run to completion, what value would be left in register h?

Your puzzle answer was ???.

Both parts of this puzzle are complete! They provide two gold stars: **

At this point, you should return to your advent calendar and try another puzzle.

If you still want to see it, you can get your puzzle input.

je vous mets la liste des instructions.

Code: Tout sélectionner
set b 99
set c b
jnz a 2
jnz 1 5
mul b 100
sub b -100000
set c b
sub c -17000
set f 1
set d 2
set e 2
set g d
mul g e
sub g b
jnz g 2
set f 0
sub e -1
set g e
sub g b
jnz g -8
sub d -1
set g d
sub g b
jnz g -13
jnz f 2
sub h -1
set g b
sub g c
jnz g 2
jnz 1 3
sub b -17
jnz 1 -23

Joyeux Noël